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The perfect aspect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb HAVE with the past (perfect-passive) participle form of the main verb.











The past (or perfect-passive) participle may end in -ed (wanted) ,-en, (driven), be the same form as an irregular simple tense (taught), or be the same form as the basic form (hit).  

The present perfect aspect refers to something that began at an indefinite time in the past, and continues through an indefinite time into the present and future. 

Abdul has traveled to Morocco  many times. 

(Abdul might continue to travel to Morocco from time-to-time.) 

The past perfect aspect refers to something that happed before something else that occurred in the past.  

Before Jana vacuumed the carpet, she had dusted her cabinets and desk.    

The Present Perfect Aspect

The Past Perfect Aspect

Sheila has studied English for four years. Before Sheila studied English, she had studied French.
Her brother, Frank, has lived in the United States for six years. Frank  had spent three years in England before coming to the United States.
He has learned to speak English well. Sheila studied French for two years but she forgot everything she had learned.  
Where have Sheila and her brother lived in the United States? IIf Sheila and her brother had lived in the United States for seven years, they could have become citizens. 
They have lived in New York and Chicago. Now they live in Los Angeles. They had lived in Casablanca for two years.

Click here for the perfect-passive participle 

Click here for the different forms of the past participle

Click here for the present and past perfect tenses