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Adverbial complex sentences consist of an 

independent clause 

and an 

adverbial dependent clause.  

Adverbial dependent clauses begin with an adverbial subordinator.   

Adverbial dependent clauses that are not attached to an independent clause are fragments. Fragments are used in spoken grammar, but should never occur in writing.

Adverbial subordinators always occur before the subject of the clause they are attached to. They cannot be moved to any other place in the clause.

The presence of an adverbial subordinator means that there is a dependent clause!  An independent clause must be added to avoid the creation of a fragment. 

This is a partial list of adverbial subordinators.

after

although

as

because

before

even though

if

until

when

while

Click here for adverbials.