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Human languages communicate complex information. We understand each other because we recognize the rules that govern the language(s) we speak. These rules are explained in the five properties of language outlined below. Native speakers know the rules of their language implicitly, but may find it difficult to explain them explicitly. Second language learners must learn them explicitly.    

This website presents the English language in terms of the linguistic properties which govern all human language. These properties include:

phonology: the study of sounds in human languages
morphology: the organization of sounds into units of meaning
syntax: the creation of grammatical units known as phrases and clauses
semantics: the study of the contextual meaning of words
 pragmatics: the study of the varieties of usage of language

Each section begins with a presentation of a specific principle of English, and is followed by suggested exercises which are intended to clarify that principle.