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Polarity involves the functions of positive and negative statements.

Tag questions are formed by the polar opposite of the statement. A positive statement followed by a negative tag question is very direct. A negative statement followed by a positive tag question carries an impression of uncertainty. 

Jack is a lucky person, isn't he?

Rose didn't want to marry her fiancÚ, did she

Yes-no questions with BE used as the auxiliary are questions that can be asked  positively or negatively. A  positive yes-question may be interpreted as a direct question; a negative no-question may often  interpreted as an exclamatory sentence.

Is Jack a lucky person?

Isn't Jack a lucky person!

 

Yes-no questions with DO, HAVE, or a modal used as the auxiliary are questions that can be answered either positively or negatively. A positive yes-no question with DO, HAVE, or a modal may be understood as a simple request for information. A negative no-question with DO, HAVE, or a modal may be understood as a request for confirmation of what the speaker believes might be true.

 

                 Do you know how to swim? Have you learned to swim? Can you swim?

                 Don't you know how to swim? Haven't you learned to swim? Can't you swim?

All yes-no questions may be answered in three different ways.

.                A simple Yes or No.

Using the auxiliary  I can.  I can't. I am, I'm not. I do, I don't. I have. I haven't. 

In a complete sentence.  Yes, I can swim.  No, I can't swim. I'm not a swimmer.  I haven't learned to swim.

Wh- questions are a request for additional information not provided in the question.

How were first-class passengers on the Titanic treated? They were treated like royalty. 

What was the Captain of the ship doing when the Titanic hit the iceberg?  He was sleeping.  

Why aren't there more movies like Titanic?  Because they are too expensive to make.

Where will you go after the movie?  I'm going home.

The verb tense used in the answer is taken from the verb tense used in the question. This rule is especially important for ESL students.   

How were first-class passengers on the Titanic treated? They were treated like royalty. 

What was the Captain of the ship doing when the Titanic hit the iceberg?  He was sleeping

Why aren't there more movies like Titanic? Because they are too expensive to make.

Where are you going after the movie? I'm going home.

What are you going to study in the fall? I'm going to study economics.