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Demonstrative Indicators

This and these  refer to objects that are next to you.  

 Use this to refer to a singular item.
 Use these to refer to plural items. 

This bird is calling to other birds.

This bird is a carnivore .

These birds are wading in the water.

These birds are a mating pair. 


That and those refer to objects that are not near you.

 Use that to refer to a singular item. 
 Use those to refer to plural items.

That bird is a male.

That bird is a female.

Those birds have a nest.

Those birds migrate great distances.