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 Adverbial subordinators connect unequal clauses.
 Adverbial subordinators begin a dependent clause.
 Adverbial dependent clauses that begin with these subordinators are NEVER used as a complete sentence in written grammar. If they are, they are marked as sentence fragments. 

   

 

Students often write in fragments because adverbial dependent clauses with no attached independent clause occur naturally in speech.

 

because

I will stay home today because the weather is very cold.
Because the weather is very cold,  I will stay home today.

 

 

while

Jan listens to the radio while he studies.
While Qumwasi was sleeping, the phone rang.

 

 

when

The waiters were tired when the dinner was finished.
When the dinner was finished, the waiters were tired.

 

 

after

Anya vacuumed the carpet after she dusted.
After she dusted, Anya vacuumed the carpet.

 

 

before

Everyone studied before they took the exam.
Before they took the exam, everyone studied.

 

 

if

The family will fly to Chicago if it doesn't snow.
If it doesn't snow, the family will fly to Chicago.